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Notes on GRUB2 and Boot Sequence

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Mar 31, 2020 Copied from

About GRUB2


Source code:

linux v.s. linux16

An interesting thing is that there are two ways to load an kernel image in grub.cfg, either linux vmlinuz-3.10.0 or linux16 vmlinuz-3.10.0. They have different effects, but not sure what are those differences. I remember only the linux16 one works for me, but not remembering why either. At least on CentOS 7, it’s all linux16.

The linux16 and initrd16 in grub-core/loader/i386/pc/linux.c: ```c GRUB_MOD_INIT(linux16) { cmd_linux = grub_register_command (“linux16”, grub_cmd_linux, 0, N_(“Load Linux.”)); cmd_initrd = grub_register_command (“initrd16”, grub_cmd_initrd, 0, N_(“Load initrd.”)); my_mod = mod; }


The linux and initrd in grub-core/loader/i386/linux.c: ```c static grub_command_t cmd_linux, cmd_initrd;

GRUB_MOD_INIT(linux) { cmd_linux = grub_register_command (“linux”, grub_cmd_linux, 0, N_(“Load Linux.”)); cmd_initrd = grub_register_command (“initrd”, grub_cmd_initrd, 0, N_(“Load initrd.”)); my_mod = mod; } ```

Boot Protocol and Sequence

This was written for I just copied it here.

Linux (x86) has a boot protocol, described by Essentially, it is a contiguous memory region, just like a big C struct: some fields are filled by kernel duing compile time (arch/x86/boot/tools/build.c and some in code), some fields are filled by GRUB2 during boot time to tell kernel some important addresses, e.g., kernel parameters, ramdisk locations etc.

GRUB2 code follows the protocol, and you can partially tell from the grub_cmd_linux() function.

Last time I working on this was late 2016, I truly spent a lot investigating how GRUB and linux boot works. I will try to document a bit, if my memory serves:

  1. In the Linux kernel, file arch/x86/boot/header.S is the first file got run after GRUB2. This file is a bit complicated but not hard to understand! It has 3 parts. For the first part, it detects if it was loaded by a bootloader, if not, just by printing an error message and reboot. It the kernel was loaded by a bootloader like GRUB2, the first part will never execute. The bootload will directly jump to the second part. This is part of the boot protocol. For the second part, it lists all the fields described by the boot protocol. And finally the third part is real-mode instructions that got run after the GRUB2 jumo. The starting function is called start_of_setup, which will do some stack checking, and then jump to C code in arch/x86/boot/main.c.

  2. arch/x86/boot/main.c runs on real-mode, it will do some setup and jump to protected-mode (32-bit). It is running after BIOS but before the actual Linux kernel. Thus this piece of code must rely on BIOS to do stuff, which makes it very unique. The major task of the setup code is to prepare the struct boot_params, which has all the boot information, some of them were extracted from the header.S. The struct boot_params will be passed down and used by many kernel subsystems later on. The final jump happens in arch/x86/boot/pmjump.S c # # Jump to protected-mode kernel, 0x100000 # which is the compressed/head_$(BITS).o # jmp *%eax

  3. Then, we are in arch/x86/boot/compressed/head_64.S. Above pmjump jumps to startup_32, it will enable paging, tweak GDT table etc, setup pagetable, and transition to 64-bit entry point startup_64. And finally, we are in 64-bit. The final jump will go to arch/x86/kernel/head_64.S. We are close!

  4. Now we are in arch/x86/kernel/head_64.S. We are in 64-bit. But some further setup is needed. This part is really low-level and engaging. I would never know I how managed to understand and port all this shit. It setup a lot GDT, IDT stuff, and some pgfault handlers. It turns out those early pgfault handlers are NECESSARY and I remember they played an very interesting role! Finally, this assembly will jump to arch/x86/kernel/head64.c, the C code!

    • I guess an interesting part is secondary_startup_64. This code is actually run by non-booting CPUs, or secondary CPUs. After the major boot CPU is up and running (already within start_kernel()), I believe its the smp_init() that will send IPI wakeup interrupts to all present secondary CPUs. The secondary CPUs will start from real-mode, obviously. Then they will transition from 16bit to 32bit, from 32bit to 64bit. That code is in arch/x86/realmode/rm/trampoline.S!
    • arch/x86/realmode is interesting. It uses piggyback technique. All the real-mode and 32bit code are in arch/x86/realmode/rm/*, a special linker script is used to construct the code in a specific way! Think about mix 16bit, 32bit, 64bit code together, nasty!
  5. Hooray, C world. We are in arch/x86/kernel/head64.c. The starting function is x86_64_start_kernel! And the end is the start_kernel, the one in init/main.c.

In all, there are a lot jumps after GRUB2 load the kernel, and its a long road before we can reach start_kernel(). It probably should not be this complex, but the x86 architecture really makes it worse. Happy hacking!

Last update: April 1, 2020


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